A Peek Into the Textile Industry of India
India’s textiles sector is one of the oldest industries in Indian economy dating back several centuries. Even today, textiles sector is one of the largest contributors to India’s exports with approximately 11 per cent of total exports. The textiles industry is also labour intensive and is one of the largest employers. The industry realised export earnings worth US$ 41.4 billion in 2014-15, a growth of 5.4 per cent, as per The Cotton Textiles Export Promotion Council (Texprocil). The textile industry has two broad segments. First, the unorganised sector consists of handloom, handicrafts and sericulture, which are operated on a small scale and through traditional tools and methods. The second is the organised sector consisting of spinning, apparel and garments segment which apply modern machinery and techniques such as economies of scale.
The Indian textiles industry is extremely varied, with the hand-spun and handwoven textiles sectors at one end of the spectrum, while the capital intensive sophisticated mills sector at the other end of the spectrum. The decentralised power looms/ hosiery and knitting sector form the largest component of the textiles sector. The close linkage of the textile industry to agriculture (for raw materials such as cotton) and the ancient culture and traditions of the country in terms of textiles make the Indian textiles sector unique in comparison to the industries of other countries. The Indian textile industry has the capacity to produce a wide variety of products suitable to different market segments, both within India and across the world.
The textile and apparel industry can be broadly divided into two segments – yarn and fibre, and processed fabrics and apparel. India accounts for ~14 per cent of the world’s production of textile fibres and yarns (largest producer of jute, second largest producer of silk and cotton, and third largest in cellulosic fibre). India has the highest loom capacity (including hand looms) with 63 per cent of the world’s market share.
The domestic textile and apparel industry in India is estimated to reach US$ 141 billion by 2021 from US$ 67 billion in 2014. Increased penetration of organised retail, favourable demographics, and rising income levels are likely to drive demand for textiles. India is the world’s second largest exporter of textiles and clothing.
Textile and apparel exports from India are expected to increase to US$ 82 billion by 2021 from US$ 40 billion in 2014. Readymade garments remain the largest contributor to total textile and apparel exports from India. In FY15, the segment had a share of 40 per cent of all textile and apparel exports. Cotton and man-made textiles were the other major contributors with shares of 31 per cent and 16 per cent, respectively.
Rising government focus and favourable policies is leading to growth in the textiles and clothing industry. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in textile sector increased to US$ 1,587.8 million in FY15 from US$ 1,424.9 million in FY14. The Ministry of Textiles is encouraging investments through increasing focus on schemes such as Technology Up-gradation Fund Scheme (TUFS). To promote apparel exports, 12 locations have been approved by the government to set up apparel parks for exports. As per the 12th Five Year Plan, the Government plans to provide a budgetary support of US$ 4.25 billion to textiles. Free trade with ASEAN countries and proposed agreement with European Union will also help boost exports.
Textile plays a major role in the Indian economy
•Textile sector contributes 14 per cent to industrial production and 4 per cent to GDP
•With over 45 million people, the industry is one of the largest source of employment generation in the country
•The industry accounts for nearly 13 per cent of total exports
•The size of India’s textile market in 2014 was US$ 99 billion; the market is expected to expand at a CAGR of 9.6 per cent over 2014–23
The Indian textiles industry, currently estimated at around US$ 108 billion, is expected to reach US$ 223 billion by 2021. The industry is the second largest employer after agriculture, providing employment to over 45 million people directly and 60 million people indirectly. The Indian Textile Industry contributes approximately 5 per cent to India’s gross domestic product (GDP), and 14 per cent to overall Index of Industrial Production (IIP).
The Indian textile industry has the potential to reach US$ 500 billion in size according to a study by Wazir Advisors and PCI Xylenes & Polyester. The growth implies domestic sales to rise to US$ 315 billion from currently US$ 68 billion. At the same time, exports are implied to increase to US$ 185 billion from approximately US$ 41 billion currently.
Source : IBEF